The average reserves of stands are in the range of 182–246 m3 / ha.
The average reserves of stands are in the range of 182–246 m3 / ha.
In the forest fund of Ukraine, young animals make up 32% of the lands covered with forest vegetation, in the Middle Ages – 44, mature – 13 and mature and overripe – 11%.
The average stock of stands per 1 ha reaches 186 m3. It should be noted that this indicator increased by 34 m3 only in the period between the last forest inventories (1988 and 1996) in Ukraine.
It is known that the most important indicator of ensuring a stable ecological balance of the agro-landscape is the forest cover of the territory, ie the degree of its afforestation. It is determined as a percentage of the area covered by forest vegetation to the total area (state, region, region, district, state forestry). Increasing forest cover and bringing this indicator closer to the optimal level is a strategic priority of the forest sector of the economy.
Optimal forest cover is the degree of afforestation of the territory, at which land resources are used most efficiently, an ecologically stable environment is formed and the whole complex of useful properties of the forest is most fully manifested. Depending on the economic development of the territory, relief, forest vegetation zone, density of the hydrological network, type of soils, etc., the parameters of optimal forest cover are different.
Regional forestry indicators in the forest-steppe zone are quite diverse: from 6–8% (Kirovohrad and Poltava regions) to 17–20% (Sumy and Kyiv, due to the Polissya part). The average forest cover of the Forest-Steppe is about 13%, while according to UkrNDILGA, the optimal forest cover of this natural area should reach 18%.
An important indicator of the sustainability of the agro-landscape is also protective forest cover – the ratio of the area of protective plantations in a certain area to the area of the latter. Currently, the field forest cover is about 1.3%, and the optimal, when the greatest positive impact of protective plantings on the whole territory is provided, should be about 3-5%.
The calculation of the optimal field protective forest cover (OPL) is based on the protective effect of adult protective plantations depending on the optimized size of field cells, soil-climatic zone, soil type, number of rows and width of forest belts. This technique was developed by the Department of Forest Reclamation of the National Agrarian University.
Due to the importance of field afforestation for the stabilization of agro-landscapes and their rational use, due attention should be paid to the existing forest belts, the area of which in Ukraine is about 440 thousand hectares. According to expert estimates, only half of these plantations are currently in relatively satisfactory condition, there are cases of complete destruction of forest belts.
In order to preserve this category of protective plantings it is necessary:
Renew the previously existing agroforestry reclamation service of state control over the condition and preservation of forest belts. Carry out a full inventory of existing protective plantations (the last continuous inventory was in 1975). Carry out care cuttings in protective plantings in order to form optimal strip structures, increase their efficiency depending on the intended purpose. If necessary, carry out reconstruction and correction of the structure of protective plantings. Strengthen the protection of protective plantations from felling, food and damage, to combat pests and diseases of tree species. To continue the works aimed at the formation of poly-functional forest reclamation complexes for the application of soil protection systems of agriculture with the contour-reclamation organization of the territory. Give priority to research to develop scientific, bioecological and technological bases of protective afforestation.
Given that Ukraine is a forest-deficient country, one of the main tasks is to ensure the expanded reproduction of forests, ie the creation of new forest plantations in excess of their deforestation. In the forest-steppe, the vast majority of forests are man-made. One of the criteria for inexhaustible forest use is a constant increase in the area of forested lands and wood stock of forest plantations. The state program "Forests of Ukraine for 2002-2015" approved by the resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of April 29, 2002 №581, provides for significant volumes of afforestation and reforestation.
Annual volumes of forest reproduction are quite significant and in some regions range from 1.4 thousand hectares (Ternopil) to 4.5 thousand hectares (Kyiv). In Ukraine as a whole, the above-mentioned Program envisages the creation of forests on the area of over 1 million hectares, including afforestation works on the area of about 445 thousand hectares. In connection with the reform and development of the agricultural sector, special importance should be given to protective afforestation. Up to 15 million hectares of land are currently subject to erosion, and the high level of plowing of agricultural lands is very noticeable.
In order to reduce the impact of erosion processes on agricultural land and increase soil fertility, land unsuitable for agricultural use is afforested. To this end, the State Forestry Committee of Ukraine together with interested ministries and departments developed "Priority measures for the establishment of protective forest plantations on lands and river basins" approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated February 28, 2001 No. 189. These measures are aimed at implementing state policy in the field of environmental protection. environment, overcoming such destabilizing factors as soil erosion and river depletion.
The area of lands on which the creation of anti-erosion protective forest plantations is potentially possible is 1030 thousand hectares. Priority measures by 2015 are planned to perform these works on an area of 299.5 thousand hectares, including 180.8 thousand hectares on land.
Implementation of current and future tasks on afforestation and reforestation will bring the forest cover of Ukraine closer to its optimal value, will protect lands from water and wind erosion, will protect water bodies from erosion and siltation, will create objective preconditions for the formation of sustainable agroforestry landscapes. significantly strengthen the socio-ecological role of forest and forest-agricultural ecosystems.
Potatoes: history, nutritional and medicinal value, varieties. Abstract
History of importation to Europe. Nutritional and medicinal value. Botanical characteristics. Biological features. Varieties of potatoes. Degeneration of potatoes
History of importation to Europe
Potatoes came to Europe in the second half of the 16th century. Initially, potatoes were not widely used as a food product and were even used for decorative purposes in the gardens of the aristocracy. It was believed that it was not healthy for Christians. This did not contribute to the mass cultivation of potatoes. During this period, potatoes also began to be used in medicine. Eventually, due to food shortages during the war, potatoes became more widely used by German farmers, and they spread further throughout Europe.
Nutritional and medicinal value
The tubers, depending on the place of cultivation and variety contain 11 -25% starch, about 2 – protein, 0.3% – fat. Potato protein is the most complete of all vegetables. It is rich in amino acids and belongs to the full. Of the minerals, potatoes are the richest in potassium (568 mg per 100 g of raw weight) and phosphorus (50 mg). It contains salts of calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamins C and B. The tubers contain up to 3 mg% solanine, so they are not used raw – it can cause poisoning. In the light, the content of solanine increases to 20-40 mg, so you can not eat green tubers without cleaning.
It is known that potatoes can be used to make more than 500 delicious dishes. It is used in boiled, fried, stewed, baked, as well as frozen and used in the processing industry. Due to the high content of potassium, potatoes promote the excretion of water and sodium chloride from the human body, thereby improving metabolism.
Fresh potato juice is used as a remedy for stomach ulcers, gastritis, constipation and hypertension. Eczema, burns and other skin diseases are treated with potato pulp. Sliced fresh potato pieces applied to the temples relieve headaches. Boiled potato water bath is often used for inhalation of the nasopharynx and throat. Baked, unsalted potatoes are used for kidney and cardiovascular diseases.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is a perennial herbaceous plant of the nightshade family (Solanace L.), which combines up to 150 wild and cultivated tuber species. In culture, it is grown as an annual plant – tubers are planted every year, from which during one growing season receive a harvest of new ripe tubers. You can also grow potatoes from seeds, which are used mainly in breeding practice. Species belonging to the genus Solatium tuberosum L. form a polyploid series with the main number of chromosomes – 2n-12, 2n-24, 3n-36, 4n-48, 5n-60, 6n-72.
All varieties of potatoes are tetraploid (4n-48). The root system in potatoes, which is grown from seed, initially has a taper structure – in the form of a germinal taproot with lateral roots. Then at the base of the stem, in its nodes, which are in the soil, a secondary root system is formed, which together with the embryonic form a fibrous root. When growing potatoes from tubers, only a secondary fibrous root system is formed.
About 70% of potato roots are located at a depth of 30 cm, and individual roots reach a depth of 1.5 m. Stems herbaceous, 30-150 cm tall, ribbed in cross section, 3-4-faceted, rarely rounded, pubescent. Some varieties have straight or wavy, narrow or wide wings along the stem ribs. In late-ripening varieties, the stems branch mainly in the lower part, precocious – in the middle. They can be green, red-purple or red-brown in color. Moreover, antodian pigmentation, depending on the variety can be manifested only at the base of the stem, along most of it or along its entire length. Sometimes there is a fairly intense pigmentation, in which the stems become almost black.
From one tuber grows an average of 4-8 stems, from which a bush is formed. According to the appearance and structure of the bushes are erect, spreading and most spreading, small and multi-stemmed, with straight or tiered stems.